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Gambling Probability | Neural Nets




Paul Aman
Championship Backgammon Summarized
Silho-Arts|1976|PB|40 pp|Photo


Asian Art
Art from Wisdom: The Invention of Chess and Backgammon
Winter 1991|vol 4 #1|Photo

Baron Vernon Ball
Alpha Backgammon

Morrow|1980|ISBN 0688037143
Morrow|1980|PB|ISBN0688087140|224 pp|Photo

How to Make a Fortune at Backgammon
Creative Marketing Systems|1982

Ted Barr
Barr on Backgammon
Writing Works|1981|ISBN 0916076520|202 pp|Photo

Bar Point
Backgammon Up To Date with Thumb Index and 27 Diagrams

de la Rue|1931|53 pp

Bruce Becker
Backgammon for Blood
Dutton|1974|ISBN 0876901232|176 pp
Clarke, Irwin|1974|Photo
NAL/Dutton|1974|PB|ISBN: 0876901232
Avon Books|1975|PB|ISBN: 0380411377

Samual Orchart Beeton
Beeton's Books of Games (Backgammon-Croquet)

Beeton|2 volums|1866

Jeremy Paul Begai
Classic Backgammon Revisited
Flaming Sparrow Press|2001|ISBN 0943292298|199 pp|Photo

Peter Bell
Winning with the Doubling Cube

Gammon Press|1998|PB|
ISBN: 1880604108|200 pp|Photo

Robert Charles Bell
Discovering Backgammon
Shire Publications|1975|PB|ISBN 0852634749|48 pp|Photo

Daniel Bellamy
Backgammon: Or, the Battle of the Friars, A Tragi-Comic Tale in Verse, to which is added a Short Essay on the Folly of Gaming, by Way of Application
J. Wilford, London|1734|22 pp (Tale=16pp; essay=6 pp)
Tale reprinted in Fiske's Chess in Iceland; essay is extracted from 'Dublin Intelligencer'

Draughts & Backgammon
George Bell & Sons|1905|112 pp|Photo

Bernhard Montgomery Beskow
Swedish Backgammon
Bittinger Publishing Co.|1932|52 pp

Ralph A. Bond
Beginner's Book of Modern Backgammon
Sears Publishing|1930|94 pp|Photo

A Primer on Modern Backgammon
Bond Games|1930|45 pp

Steven Bosak
[Murder mystery w/BG theme]
St. Martin's/Marek|1985|ISBN 0312316291|217 pp

Robert Bowden
Challenger Backgammon
Sport Centers of America|1977|LC#77-73685|PB|256 pp|Photo

Elizabeth Clark Boyden
The New Backgammon
Harcourt, Brace and Company|1930|viii+104 pp|Photo

Chris Bray
Backgammon - An Independent view
Electra|1998|ISBN 190150105| 128 pp|Photo

Chris Bray
What Colour is the Wind?
Electra|1998|ISBN 190150105|Photo

Frank Elmer Bruelheide & Paul R. Freyd
Winning Backgammon at Sight

Bruce-Roberts|1930|40 pp|Photo


Jonathan Baxter, Andrew Tridgell & Lex Weaver
See neural nets

Arthur T. Benjamin
with A.M. Ross

Enumerating Backgammon Positions: The Perfect Hash
Interface|V. 16, No. 1|pp. 3-10| Spring 1997

with Mike Munson
Winning Backgammon

with Andrew Ross
Optimal Racing in Backgammon

Hans J. Berliner
A Program that Plays Backgammon
SIGART Newsletter No. 54|1975

Experiences in Evaluation with BKG: A Program that Plays Backgammon
Proc. of the 5th International Joint Conference on AI | 1977| Cambridge, MA|pp 428-433

Backgammon computer program beats world champion
Artificial Intelligence v.14 #2|205-220|1980

Computer Backgammon
Scientific American|64-72|June, 1980

Justin A. Boyan
Modular Neural Networks for Learning Context-Dependent Game Strategies
Download (pdf)

John Boyland
Backgammon Board

Fine Woodworking|#33|p.66-67|Mar-Apr 1982

John Bradshaw
Backgammon...Lore and Lure

Playboy|v.20#3|p.119|Mar 1973

M. Buro
Efficient Approximation of Backgammon Race Equities
ICCA Journal, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 98-102. ISSN 0920-234X
Download (pdf)

William E. Bushey
Gammon -- An Approach to the Concept of Strategy in Game Playing Programs
Postgraduate Thesis


Alice Howard Cady
A Glance into the Early History and Descriptions of the Pasttime
American Sports Publishing Company|c1895|43 pp

Royal Publishing|18??|PB|25 pp

Bound with "The Checker Player's Handkbook" by Sturgess and Walker

Donald Carter
How to Play and Win

Holloway House|1973|PB|ISBN 0-87067-616-4|247 pp|Photo

Pocket Guide to Backgammon and Russian Backgammon
de la Rue|1878|21 pp|Photo

Michelin Chabot
Backgammon: How Much Should You Bet?
1981|100 pp

Backgammon: How to Maximize Your Profits and Optimize Your Cube Decisions Using the Kelly System

W. & R. Chambers
Draughts Backgammon and Dominoes
Chambers|1884|80 pp

Robin Clay
(Teach Yourself Series) Hodder and Stoughton|1977|PB|ISBN 0340222336|x+164 pp|Photo
NTC Publishing|1993|PB|ISBN 0844239070|164 pp

Backgammon in a Week
Hodder & Staughton|1992| ISBN 0340563893|iv+92 pp|Photo

Backgammon: Winning Strategies
Pan Books|1996|PB|
ISBN 0330349813|244 pp|Photo

Barclay Cooke & Jon Bradshaw
Backgammon The Cruelest Game
Random House|1974|ISBN 0394488121|Photo
Random House|1974|PB|ISBN 039473243X|209 pp

Barclay Cooke
Paradoxes and Probabilities
Random House|1978|ISBN 0394501268|184 pp|Photo

Barclay Cooke and René Orléan
Championship Backgammon

Prentice-Hall|1980|ISBN 0131261029|338 pp|Photo

W. H. Copeland
Backgammon - Know the Game
E. P. Publishing|ISBN 0-7158-0173-2|31 pp |1975|Photo

Peter Crandall
Win at Backgammon
Coles|1976|PB|104 pp|Photo

Magazine Cover

Elegant lady playing BG with gentleman
April 11, 1931




Gregory E. Dahms
Backgammon -- Computer Computations for Exact Settlement Values and Doubling Decisions in the Late Backgame
Carleton University|1978|Pamphlet

(Danish Backgammon Federation)
Backgammon World Championship Monte Carlo 2002
2003|Spiral bound|152 pp

John Davidson
Rules of Backgammon
John Jaques|16 pp. pamphlet

Lewis Deyong
Playboy's Book of Backgammon
Playboy Press|1977|PB|ISBN 087223522X|295 pp|Photo

Backgammon: Learning to Win
Barrie & Jenkins|1979|ISBN 0214204987|247 pp

Jack Dillon
How to Play Acey Deucey
Albert Whitman|1943

David Dor-El
The Clermont Book of Backgammon
Queen Anne|1975
Winchester|1975|ISBN 0876912986|v+147 pp|Photo

The Masters' Moves
David Dor-El Enterprises|1982

William Astor Drayton, Esq.
Verses on Backgammon
Union Club|1948|31 Verses|Photo

Joe Dwek
Backgammon for Profit
Stein & Day|1976|ISBN 0812819403|191 pp|Photo


Gregory E. Dahms
Backgammon: Computer Computations for Exact Settlement Values and Doubling Decisions in the Late Backgame
Fourth Annual Conference on Gambling, Reno, Nevada, Dec. 17-19, 1978

F. England
Modern Backgammon

W. D. Eyre
Taking Some of the Luck Out of Backgammon
Ramapo Publishing|1931|Photo


Early American Life Magazine
Revival of an Ancient Game, Backgammon
Don Stern
June 1974|Vol. V, #3|pg 26

Esquire Magazine
The Gospel According to X-22
Laurence Shanes
April 1980|pg 76|Photo

George Henry Fisher
How to Play Backgammon
Little Blue Book No. 1749
Haldeman-Julius Publications|PB|60 pp

Lizann Flatt
Backgammon for Kids
Somerville House|1999|PB|ISBN 1581840519|48 pp|Photo

F. Y. Flinton
Elementary Moves

Winning Way|1940

Nicholas Frantzis
Seven Popular Games of Backgammon
Exposition Press|1979|ISBN 0-682-49295-7|136 pp| Photo

The 7 games are: Ktipito (American), Plakoto (European-Middle East), The Game (The Never Finishg Game), Gioul (Plakoto Express), Moultezim (Middle East), Acey-Deucy, Blocking Express

Roy Friedman
World Class Backgammon, Move by Move
Self-published|1988,1989|ix+225 pp|Photo


Gregory Galperin and Paul Viola
Machine Learning for Prediction and Control
Re: TD-Gammon and MC simulation

Learning & Vision Group, AI Lab, MIT - pdf





Peter Nicholas Gatsos
Modern Backgammon in a Nutshell
(Backgammon as a Military Conflict)

J. Poly & Sons|1930

Lee Genud
Lee Genud's Backgammon Book
Cliff House|1974|PB|ISBN 0843103426|158 pp|Photo

Walter Gibson
Castle|1974|144 pp|Photo

Backgammon: The Way to Play and Win
Harper & Row|1974
|PB|ISBN 064650049|Photo

Fell's Guide to Winning Backgammon
F. Fell Publishers|1974|ISBN 0811902358|166 pp|Photo

How to Win at Backgammon
(Previously published as Fell's Guide to Winning Backgammon)
Grosset & Dunlap|1974|PB|ISBN 0-448-14682-7|166 pp|Photo

Suzanne Goldberg & Robert Hamilton
Rules of the Game: Backgammon
ISBN: 1887594027|148 pp|Photo

James T. Goldsmith
Harrap's Easy Guide to Backgammon
aka Easy Guide to Backgammon
Harrap|ISBN 0245527087|PB|1975|71 pp Photo
Harrap|PB|ISBN 024552763X|1975|71 pp

Charles H. Goren
Goren's Modern Backgammon Complete
Doubleday|1974|ISBN 0385010141|208 pp
Chancellor Hall|1978|PB|192 pp|Photo

Kent Goulding
Backgammon with the Champions: Magriel v Eisenberg
KG Publication|v1#1|1981|42 pp

Backgammon with the Champions: Senkiewicz v Robertie
KG Publication|v1#2|1981|76 pp

Backgammon with the Champions: Papazian v Tomchin
KG Publication|v1#3|1981|62 pp

Backgammon with the Champions:
Chafetz v Dwek
KG Publication|v1#4|1981|61 pp

Backgammon with the Champions: Seidel v Hodis
KG Publication|v1#5|1981|51 pp

Backgammon with the Champions: Goulding v Maxakuli
KG Publication|v1#6|1982|54 pp

Backgammon with the Champions: David Leibowitz v Mike Corbett
KG Publication|v2#1|1982|70 pp + Appendix

Backgammon with the Champions: Paul Magriel v Hugh Sconyers
KG Publication|v2#2|1982|61 pp

Backgammon with the Champions:
Lee Genud v Kathy Posner

KG Publication|v2#3|1982|64 pp

Backgammon with the Champions: Nack Ballard v Sandy Lubetkin
KG Publications|v2#4|1982|70 pp

Backgammon with the Champions: Double issue
Kumar Motakhasses v Jim Pasko
KG Publication|v2#5|1982|66 pp
The Last Chance:
   Kit Woolsey v Jim Pasko
   Mike Senkiewicz v Billy Eisenberg
   Billy Horan v Jason Lester
KG Publication|v2#6|1982|60 pp

William Green, Teacher of the calculation of changes
The backgammon teacher, a treatise, new and original throughout, in which the sure means of attaining superiority at that game, are clearly pointed out. To which is annexed a familiar exposition of the manner of calculating changes, with tables of odds, and a new code of laws, founded on the best authorities
Hansard|1819|40 pp

Roy Grimse
Backgammon uno para Novatos
Distribuidoro Intermex|1976|162 pp

Articles & Dissertations

Andre Maxim Gold
A Backgammon Playing Program
Thesis (B.S.) MIT, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science|Call Barker MCRFORM (Fiche 1977 B.S.) or Archives Noloan3 (Thesis E.E. 1977 B.S.)|1977|76 leaves


F. Hardy
Handbook of Draughts and Backgammon
Frederick Warne and Company|1867|96 pp

Lelia Hattersley
How to Play the New Backgammon
Doubleday, Doran|1930|133 pp|Photo

Backgammon to Win
Award Books|1974|PB|136 pp|Photo

Hal Heinrich
Top Matches Vol. 1
Danish Backgammon Publishers|1993|ISBN 8798325027|99 pp

Advanced Backgammon
See Woolsey

Ron Held
The Backgammon Pocket Dictionary

European Backgammon News|1995|68 pp

Enno Heyken and Martin B. Fischer
The Backgammon Handbook
Trafalgar Square|1991|Hardcover|
ISBN 1852234024|232 pp|Photo

Tim Holland
Beginning Backgammon
David McKay|1973|xi+209 pp|Photo

Better Backgammon
Reiss|1974|PB|ISBN: 067914126X|vi+122 pp|Photo

Backgammon for People Who Hate to Lose
David McKay|1977
|ISBN: 0679506527|Photo

Millard Hopper
A. S. Barnes|1941|ix+111 pp|Photo

Win at Backgammon
Dover Publications|1975|PB|
ISBN: 0486228940|ix+111 pp|Photo

How to Play Backgammon
111 pp

Gaby Horowitz and Bruce Roman
Dynamic Cube Strategy
Advanced Backgammon Enterprises|1980|ix+134 pp|Photo

Edmond Hoyle
A Short Treatise on the Game of Back-Gammon
F. Cogan|1743|69 pp

R. Hoyle
How to Play Backgammon



Tim Holland
Big-Time Backgammon
Playboy|v.20#3|Mar 1973




Jake Jacobs and Walter Trice
Can a Fish Taste Twice as Good?: Doubling in an Unequal Match
ToBak Press|1996|114 pp|Photo

Jake Jacobs
A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Four- Point!
ToBak Press|1997|196 pp|Photo

Jake Jacobs, editor
Backgammon Scholar

Am. Assn. of BG Clubs|1982|67 pp

James and Mary Zita Jacoby
The New York Times Book of Backgammon
Quadrangle, New York Times Book Co.|1973|ISBN: 0812903838|175 pp

Oswald Jacoby and John R. Crawford
The Backgammon Book
Viking Press|1970|
SBN 670144096|224 pp|Photo
Macmillan Canada|1970

Frederic Jessel
A Bibliography of Works in English on Playing Cards and Gaming
(Contains many BG entries to turn of 20th Century)
Longmans, Green, and Co.|1905

Reprinted by Patterson Smith as "Bibliography of Works on Playing Cards and Gaming"|1972|311 pp
(Info courtesy Mark Driver)

E. J. (Ely Jacques) Kahn, Jr.
Far-Flung & Footloose
"I Was Extremely Lucky" pp 428-443
Tales from Vegas Million-Dollar Tournament
Orig published in the New Yorker

Prince Joli Kansil
Victoria Publishers|1974|PB|LC 74-20271|80 pp Photo

The Backgammon Quiz Book
Playboy Press|1978|PB|ISBN 0872164918|287 pp

Bill Kennedy & Chuck Papazian
Backgammon Master Games
Shima|1981|ISBN 0941960005|215 pp Photo

Andy Keys-Toyer
Dowlands Press|1977|PB|28 pp

Danny Kleinman
A Backgammon Book For Gabriel
Self-published|1994|143 pp

...But Only the Hogs Win Backgammons
Self-published|1991|244 pp

Double Sixes from the Bar
Self-published|1982|135 pp

Larry Stommen|1997|136 pp

How Can I keep from Dancing?
Self-published|134 pp

How Little we know about Backgammon
Self-published|168 pp

Is There Life After Backgammon?
Self-published|1983|148 pp

Long Road To Gammon
Self-published|1995|176 pp

Meanwhile, Back at the Chouette
Self-published|1981|142 pp

The Dice Conquers All
Self-published|228 pp|Photo
Larry Stommen|iv+210 pp|Photo

The Other side of Midnight
Self-published|142 pp

Vision Laughs at Counting with Advice to the Lovelorn (2 vol)
Self-published|1980|438 pp|Photo
Larry Strommen|1996|435 pp|Photo

Wonderful World of Backgammon
Self-published|1981|132 pp

Larry Stommen|1996|136 pp

See also Antonio Ortega and Danny Kleinman

Articles & Dissertations

M. Umit Karakas
A Design and Implementation of Backgammon Learning System
N.C. State University|1982|39 pp
DH Hill Library|Call#QA76.27.C68 no. 82-01

Emmett B. Keeler and Joel Spencer
Optimal Doubling in Backgammon
Operations Research|Vol. 23 No. 6|1975

Proper Raising Points in a Generalization of Backgammon
Rand Corporation|1969|30 pp
To order: phone (310) 451-7002 for document number P-4078


Mike Labins & Lloyd Jerauld
Competitive Backgammon Vol. I: Genud, Pasko & Wright
Competitive Backgammon Publications|1981|Photo

Mike Labins, Marty Storer, & Bill Tallmadge
Competitive Backgammon Vol. II
Competitive Backgammon Publications|1981

Paul Lamford
100 Backgammon Puzzles
Andre Deutsch|1999|PB|ISBN 0233997148|128 pp Photo

Paul Lamford & Simon Gasquoine
Improve Your Backgammon
Globe Pequot Press

Starting Out in Backgammon
Everyman Publishers|2001|PB|ISBN 1857442822|128 pp Photo

Michael S. Lawrence
Winning Backgammon
Pinnacle|1973|PB|ISBN 0523008604|viii+239 pp Photo

John Leet
Winning Backgammon
Cassell|1998|PB|ISBN 0806904593|128 pp Photo

John Longacre
Backgammon of Today
Winston|1930|132 pp
Bell|1973|ISBN 051712873X|130 pp Photo

James Lortz

Vantage Press|1995|PB|ISBN 0533112184| 267 pp

Articles & Dissertations

Thomas Grover Land
Decision-Making in a Competitive Situation: Move Selection in Backgammon
Ph.D. thesis|Johns Hopkins University|1978
Order item #7817954 from UMI

Lapidary Journal
Backgammon Cut
Robert S. Stepp
October 1991|pg 87

David Levner
Is Brute Force Backgammon Possible?
SIGART Newsletter|No. 58|1976

Michael Laurence
Backgammon ... Secrets and Subtleties
Playboy|v.20#3|Mar 1973




Georges Mabardi & Clare Boothe Brokaw
Vanity Fair's Backgammon to Win
Horace Liveright|1930|158 pp|Photo

Georges Mabardi & Clare Boothe Luce
Vanity Fair's Backgammon to Win
Simon and Schuster|1974|ISBN 671-21766-6|145 pp|Photo

Paul Magriel and Penny Mintz
The Game of Backgammon
Topalco|1973|23+ pp

Paul Magriel
Quadrangle/New York Times Book Co.|1976|ISBN 0-8129-0615-2| 404 pp Photo
Gammon Press|1998|PB

An Introduction to Backgammon: A Step-By-Step Guide
Quadrangle/New York Times Book Co.|1977|ISBN 0-8129-0735-3154 pp Photo

The Game of Backgammon
GOTO Software|1999|ISBN 2-909280-05-5|Pamphlet 20 pp

The "Major"
Checker Primer
Including Backgammon & Dice

Excelsior|1877|44 pp|Photo

Napoleon Marache
Manual of Chess with the Games of Backgammon and Dominoes

Dick & Fitzgerald|1866|156 pp (incl 24 on BG)|Photo
Text is almost entirely from 'Comic Backgammon' but without illustrations.

Phillip Martyn
Phillip Martyn on Backgammon

Stanley Paul|1976|ISBN 0091279704|188 pp Photo

Penny Mintz
See Paul Magriel

J. du C. vere Molyneux
Begin Backgammon
Elliot Right Way|1984|PB|ISBN 0716020750|126 pp Photo

Other Printed Material

James A. Moffet
Backgammon Calculator


Grosvenor Nicholas
Modern Backgammon
Henry Holt|1928|xii+110 pp|Photo

Grosvenor Nicholas & C. Wheaton Vaughan
Winning Backgammon Problems and Answers
D. Appleton|1930|xii+103 pp|Photo

Tim Norfolk
Rules • Strategy • Winning Play

Tutor Press|1978|PB|166 pp|Photo

Magazine Cover

Nation's Business
Shipboard backgammon
July 1950


Prince Alexis Obolensky and Ted James
Backgammon: The Action Game
Collier (Macmillan)|1969|PB|ISBN 0-491-00098-7|PB|171 pp|Photo

Prince Alexis Obolensky
Backgammon, Rules and Rulings

James E. Opre

Hexagon Fun Company|1977|26 pp

Antonio Ortega
Fascinating Backgammon
Gammon Press|Photo

Antonio Ortega, Max Esquivel, Mario Madrigal and Neil Kazaross
Costa Rica 1993: Wilcox Snellings vs. Mike Senkiewics

Editorama|1994|spiral-bound|ISBN 9977121168|185 pp

Antonio Ortega, Mario Madrigal, and Danny Kleinman
Backgammon: Costa Rica 1994 Senkiewicz vs. Svobodny
Editorama|1996|spiral-bound|ISBN 9977880352|161 pp|Photo

Antonio Ortega and Danny Kleinman
Cubes and Gammons Near the End of the Match
Editorama|1997|spiral-bound|ISBN 997788409|122 pp|Photo

Jerry Grandell
His most important matches
Editorama|1999|PB|ISBN 9977880514|214 pp|Photo

Backgammon With the Giants: Neil Kazaross
Editorama|2001|PB|ISBN 9977880581|223 pp|Photo

Articles & Dissertations

Orth, P.J.
A Comment on Optimal Doubling in Backgammon
Operations Research 24|1179|1976

Oshrin, Amos
The Doubling Cube in Computer Backgammon
Thesis (B.S.) MIT, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science|Call Barker MCRFORM (Fiche 1979 B.S.) or Archives Noloan3 (Thesis E.E. 1979 B.S.)|1979|161 leaves




George Frederick Pardon
(aka Captain Rawdon Crawley)
A Handbook of Draughts
With a Chapter on Backgammon
Routledge|2nd ed. 1863|95 pp

Backgammon: Its History and Practice
D. Bogue|1844|79 pp

Backgammon: Its History and Practice
Clarke|1860 reprint|79 pp

Comic Backgammon
(Barry Vail reprint of 1844 edition, with intro)
D. Bogue/Barry Vail|viii+79|1931 Photo

Backgammon: Its Theory and Practice
C. H. Clarke|1858|94 pp|Photo

Backgammon & Draughts
Frederick A. Stokes|1889 Photo

Hugh Payne
Dice Analysis
[General dice probabilities]
Edwards|1947|442 pp

Susan Perry
How to Play Backgammon
Creative Education|ISBN 08912218X|1981
|40 pp|Photo

Arthur Prager
Underhanded Backgammon
A Devious Guide to the Art of Backhanded Backgammon

Hawthorn|1977|PB|ISBN 0801581257|116 PP|Photo


Jordan Pollack, Alan Blair and Mark Land
Coevolution of a Backgammon Player
Download (pdf)
MIT Press|Proceedings of the Fifth Artificial Life Conference, Nara Japan|May, 1996

Jordan Pollack & Alan Blair
Why did TD-Gammon work?
MIT Press|Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 9, Cambridge, MA, 1996

Download (pdf)

Raquet and Tennis Club
Laws of Backgammon
Charles Scribner's Sons|1931

Arman Ratip
How to Play Backgammon
Spring|1977|ISBN 060031428661 pp|Photo

Terence Reese and Robert Brinig
The Modern Game

Allen|1975|ISBN 0-491-01663-8|139 pp Photo
Rolls Offset|1998|Pbk|141 pp

Walter Littauer Richard
Complete Backgammon
Cosmopolitan Book Corporation, 1931

G. Bell|British Edition|1938|114 pp
AP Games/Little & Ives|1940|PB|116 pp Photo

Bill Robertie
501 Essential Backgammon Problems
Publishers' Group West|2000|ISBN: 1580420192 |Pbk|360 pp|Photo

Advanced Backgammon
Gammon Press|One Volume|1984|ii+298 pp Photo

Two Volumes: Positional Play |ISBN 1880604027|iv+272 pp Photo

Technical Play |ISBN 1880604035|270 pp|Gammon Press|1991|PB Photo

Backgammon for Winners
ISBN: 0940685426|94 pp Photo
1995|PB|ISBN: 0940685582

Backgammon for Serious Players
|ISBN: 094068568X|186 pp Photo

Lee Genud vs. Joe Dwek: The 1981 World Championship of Backgammon
Gammon Press|1982|PB|171 pp|Photo

Modern Backgammon
Gammon Press|2001|ISBN 1880604175|PB|361 pp Photo

Reno 1986
Gammon Press|1987|PB|Photo

Learning from the Machine: Robertie v TD-Gammon
Arlington, MA|Gammon Press|1993|PB|51 pp Photo

Reuben Roy
Roy's Game of Backgammon, wherein the Principles of the Game are explained, and the Directions of the best Players and Authorities have been Compared and Revised





Rick Steed
The Meanest Game

(Cartoons)|1975|103 pp

Don Stern
The Quick Course to Winning Play

Drake|1973|ISBN 0883652641|224 pp Photo

Backgammon: How to Play, Gamble and Win
Lexington Press|ISBN 09043120504|1974|PB|224 pp|Photo

Franklin Watts|1977|ISBN 0531012980|84 pp|Photo

J.W. Stewart
How to Play Backgammon
Gaskill and Marriott|1902|32 pp

Marty Storer and Bill Tallmadge
Magriel in Boston

Joshua Sturges
Hand Book of Draughts and Backgammon

H. F. Anners|1852|Photo

H.D. Symonds
Backgammon. Rules and directions for playing the game of backgammon. Illustrated with calculations, critical cases, and games.
London|Lee & Hurst|1801|32 pp|Photo


Schädler, Ulrich
XII Scripta, Alea, Tabula - New Evidence for the Roman History of "Backgammon" Alexander J. de Voogt (Hrsg.), New Approaches to Board Games Research, Leiden 1995, 73-98

Shumacker, R.E. & J. Sheer & D. Leitner
Backgammon: Winning with probability
The Illinois Mathematics Teacher, 31(1), 13-19

Sports Illustrated
A War Against Luck and Disorder
Roger Dionne
June 4, 1979|page 58|Photo

Status Magazine
Opiate of the Leisure Class
July-August 1969

Oh Tee
Backgammon as Played in Hollywood
E. Hays Press|c1930|72 pp

Dave Thompson
Play Backgammon Tonight
Gambler's Book Club Press|1983|61 pp|PB|ISBN 911996-58-3

Harold Thorne
Backgammon in 20 Minutes
E. P. Dutton|1930|31 pp

Backgammon Tactics
E. P. Dutton|1931|133 pp Photo

G.I.A. Titley
Know the Game

Black|1994|PB|ISBN 0713637412|48 pp Photo

Jon Tremaine
The Amazing Book of Backgammon
Chartwell Books|1995|ISBN 1855017687|125 pp Photo

Nicolaos and Vassilios Tzannes
How Good are You at Backgammon?
Simon and Schuster|1974|spiral-bound|160 pp|

Nicolaos and Basil Tzannes
Backgammon Games and Strategies
A. S. Barnes|1977|PB|ISBN 0498014975|267 pp Photo


Tesauro, Gerald and T.J.Sejnowski
A Parallel Network that Learns to Play Backgammon
Artificial Intelligence 39:357-390|1989

Tesauro, Gerald
Neurogammon wins Computer Olympiad
Neural Computation 1:321-323|1989

Practical issues in temporal difference learning
Machine Learning|8(3/4):257-277|May, 1992

TD-Gammon, a Self-Teaching Backgammon Program, Achieves Master-level Play
Neural Computation|6:215-219|1994

Temporal Difference Learning and TD-Gammon
Communications of the ACM|v38#3|58-68|1995

Neural network defeats creator in Backgammon match
Technical Report CCSR-88-6, Center for Complex Systems Research, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL, 1988

Gerald Tesauro and Terrence Sejnowski
A parallel network that learns to play backgammon
Artificial Intelligence|39:357-390|1989

Neurogammon: a neural network backgammon program
Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks
V . III:33-39|1990

Edward O. Thorpe
Backgammon - The Optimal Strategy for the Pure Running Game
Second Annual Conference on Gambling, South Lake Tahoe, Nevada, June 15-18, 1975

Tuck, E.O.
Simulation of bearing off and doubling in backgammon
Math. Sci. 6 (1981), no. 1, 43--61

Doubling strategies for backgammon-like games.
J. Austral. Math. Soc. Ser. B 21 (1979.80), no. 4, 440--451.








Magazine Cover

Vanity Fair
Flummoxed gentleman playing lady
February, 1931 (35 cents) Photo

Bob Wachtel
In the Game Until the End: Winning in Ace-Point Endgames
Gammon Press|1993|PB|103 pp Photo

William Henry Walling and William J. Hiss
Backgammon Standards: How to Win at Backgammon
Simon & Schuster|1930|149 pp Photo

Jeff Ward
The Doubling Cube in Backgammon, Vol. 1
Aquarian Enterprises|1982|186 pp Photo

Secrets of Winning at Backgammon
Pocket Books|1984

Winning Backgammon
Simon & Schuster|1986|PB|ISBN 0346125715

Winning is More Fun
Aquarian Enterprises|1982

Norm Wiggins
Boards, Blots & Double Shots
Self-published|2001|Spiral bound|136 pp Photo

L. Wilson
Play Backgammon

Coles|1975|PB|94 pp|Photo

Kit Woolsey

Backgammon Encyclopedia V.1
Gammon Press|2002|124 pp|ISBN 1880604183| 124 pp Photo

Master versus Amateur
Gammon Press|1993|ISBN 1880604132|PB Photo

How to Play Tournament Backgammon
Gammon Press|PB Photo

Lidov vs. Heinrich
Gammon Press|1994|spiral-bound|ISBN 188060406X|211 pp

Marmorstein v Greiner
Gammon Press|1994|spiral-bound|ISBN 1880604051|228 pp

Sylvester vs. Ballard
Gammon Press|1994|spiral-bound|ISBN 1880604043|140 pp

Kit Woolsey and Hal Heinrich
New Ideas in Backgammon
Gammon Press|1996|PB|ISBN 1880604086|336 pp Photo

Marco A. Wiering
TD learning of game evaluation functions with hierarchical neural architectures
Master's thesis, Department of Computer Systems, University Amsterdam, April 1995 PDF




Probability - Statistics - Gambling


Zadeh, N and G.Kobliska
On Optimal Doubling in Backgammon
Management Science 23|1977|853-858

Zadeh, N
On Doubling in Tournament Backgammon
Management Science 23|1977|986-993

F.N. David
Games, Gods and Gambling : A History of Probability and Statistical Ideas

Dover|PB 1998|ISBN 0486400239

Richard A. Epstein
The Theory of Gambling and Statistical Logic
Academic Press|1st ed. 1969, revised 1977 ISBN 0122407504|2nd ed. 1995 PB ISBN 0-12-240761-X|450 pp

Review: "Highly theoretical.... completely satisfying!"

Mason Malmuth
Gambling Theory and Other Topics
Two Plus Two |PB 1999|ISBN 1880685035

Review: "Read this if you also enjoy poker."

John L. Phillips
How to Think About Statistics
Freeman|PB 1999|ISBN: 0716736543

Review: "An excellent statistics starter. Buy it!"

John Scarne
Scarne on Dice

Wilshire Book Co; ISBN: 0879804319

Review: "Very limited backgammon assistance. "

David Sklansky
Getting the Best of It
Two Plus Two |PB 1999|ISBN 1880685043


Neural Nets (BG-related)

Neural Nets (General Texts)

Jonathan Baxter, Andrew Tridgell & Lex Weaver
TDLeaf(lambda): Combining Temporal Difference learning with game-tree search

Download 1-ply performance & goodness
Australian National University

G. Galperin and G. Tesauro
Parallel Monte-Carlo Simulation of Neural Network Controllers

Simon S. Haykin
Neural Networks: A Comprehensive Foundation
Prentice Hall|1998| ISBN: 0132733501|700 pp

Amanda J. C. Sharkey (Editor), S. Singh (Editor)
Combining Artificial Neural Nets : Ensemble and Modular Multi-Net Systems
Springer Verlag|1999|ISBN: 185233004X |Pbk|384 pp

Richard S. Sutton & Andrew G. Barto
Reinforcement Learning: An Introduction
Online version of book including section on TD-Gammon

Richard K; Walker, Terri C. Miller, Anne M. Ryan, Terri C. Walker
Neural Net Applications
Seai Technical Pubns|1990|ISBN: 0896711072



© 1999-2004 Art Grater. Some entries courtesy Mark Driver